References

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  1. 1. Shea KM, et al. Rates of Pneumococcal Disease in Adults with Chronic Medical Conditions. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2014 May 27;1(1):ofu024
  2. 2. Wyrwich .WK, et al. Observational longitudinal study of symptom burden and time for recovery from community-acquired pneumonia reported by older adults surveyed nationwide using the CAP Burden of Illness Questionnaire. Patient Related Outcome Measures 2015:6 215–223.
  3. 3. Tomczyk.S, et al. Use of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine and 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine Among Adults Aged ≥65 Years: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) MMWR.2014;63:37
  4. 4. American Lung Association, Pneumococcal Pneumonia. https://www.lung.org/blog/you-can-still-get-pneumonia-in-summer (Accessed 20th Aug 2021)
  5. 5. Pelton.SI, et al. Decline in Pneumococcal Disease Attenuated in Older Adults and Those with Comorbidities Following Universal Childhood PCV13 Immunization.CID 2019;68(11):1831–8
  6. 6. National Adult immunization schedule https://www.moh.gov.sg/news-highlights/details/moh-establishes-national-adult-immunisation-schedule-extends-use-of-medisave-for-vaccines-under-the-schedule (Accessed 20th Aug 2021)
  7. 7. CDC How to prevent pneumococcal factsheet, https://www.cdc.gov/pneumococcal/resources/prevent-pneumococcal-factsheet.pdf (Accessed 20th Aug 2021)
  8. 8. Jain.S, et al. Community-Acquired Pneumonia Requiring Hospitalization among U.S. Adults N Engl J Med 2015;373:415-27.


How bad is it?

Overview:

  1. 1. Wyrwich. WK, et al. Observational longitudinal study of symptom burden and time for recovery from community-acquired pneumonia reported by older adults surveyed nationwide using the CAP Burden of Illness Questionnaire. Patient Related Outcome Measures 2015:6 215–223.
  2. 2. CDC Pink Book 13th ed 2015 (Ch17). https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/pinkbook/pneumo.html#streptococcus-pneumoniae (Accessed 20th Aug 2021)
  3. 3. CDC Pneumococcal symptoms and complications. https://www.cdc.gov/pneumococcal/about/symptoms-complications.html ( Accessed 20th Aug 2021) 
  4. 4. American Lung Association, Pneumococcal Pneumonia. https://www.lung.org/blog/you-can-still-get-pneumonia-in-summer (Accessed 20th Aug 2021)
  5. 5. CDC How to prevent pneumococcal factsheet, https://www.cdc.gov/pneumococcal/resources/prevent-pneumococcal-factsheet.pdf (Accessed 20th Aug 2021)
  6. 6. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Pneumonia https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/pneumonia. (Accessed 20th Aug 2021)
  7. 7. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Covid-19 and Lungs https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/coronavirus/lungs (Accessed 20th Aug 2021)
  8. 8. Jain.S, et al. Community-Acquired Pneumonia Requiring Hospitalization among U.S. Adults N Engl J Med 2015;373:415-27.

Causes:

  1. 1. Wyrwich. WK, et al. Observational longitudinal study of symptom burden and time for recovery from community-acquired pneumonia reported by older adults surveyed nationwide using the CAP Burden of Illness Questionnaire. Patient Related Outcome Measures 2015:6 215–223.
  2. 2. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Pneumonia. https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/pneumonia (Accessed 20th Aug 2021)
  3. 3. CDC How to prevent pneumococcal factsheet, https://www.cdc.gov/pneumococcal/resources/prevent-pneumococcal-factsheet.pdf (Accessed 20th Aug 2021)
  4. 4. Jain.S, et al. Community-Acquired Pneumonia Requiring Hospitalization among U.S. Adults N Engl J Med 2015;373:415-27.

Symptoms:

  1. 1. Wyrwich. WK, et al. Observational longitudinal study of symptom burden and time for recovery from community-acquired pneumonia reported by older adults surveyed nationwide using the CAP Burden of Illness Questionnaire. Patient Related Outcome Measures 2015:6 215–223.
  2. 2.CDC Pink Book 13th ed 2015 (Ch17) https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/pinkbook/pneumo.html#streptococcus-pneumoniae (Accessed 20th Aug 2021)
  3. 3. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Pneumonia. https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/pneumonia (Accessed 20th Aug 2021)
  4. 4. Jain.S, et al. Community-Acquired Pneumonia Requiring Hospitalization among U.S. Adults N Engl J Med 2015;373:415-27.

Severity

  1. 1. Wyrwich. WK, et al. Observational longitudinal study of symptom burden and time for recovery from community-acquired pneumonia reported by older adults surveyed nationwide using the CAP Burden of Illness Questionnaire. Patient Related Outcome Measures 2015:6 215–223.
  2. 2.CDC Pink Book 13th ed 2015 (Ch17) https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/pinkbook/pneumo.html#streptococcus-pneumoniae (Accessed 20th Aug 2021)
  3. 3.Michelin.L,et al. Mortality and costs of pneumococcal pneumonia in adults: a cross-sectional studyJ Bras Pneumol. 2019;45(6):e20180374
  4. 4. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Pneumonia. https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/pneumonia (Accessed 20th Aug 2021)
  5. 5.Pelton.SI, et al. Decline in Pneumococcal Disease Attenuated in Older Adults and Those With Comorbidities Following Universal Childhood PCV13 Immunization.CID 2019;68(11):1831–8
  6. 6. Jain.S, et al. Community-Acquired Pneumonia Requiring Hospitalization among U.S. Adults N Engl J Med 2015;373:415-27.

Am I at risk?

  1. 1. Pelton.SI, et al. Decline in Pneumococcal Disease Attenuated in Older Adults and Those With Comorbidities Following Universal Childhood PCV13 Immunization. CID 2019;68(11):1831–8
  2. 2. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Pneumonia. https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/pneumonia (Accessed 20th Aug 2021)
  3. 3. Brooks L, Mias G. Streptococcus pneumoniae’s Virulence and Host Immunity: Aging, Diagnostics, and Prevention. Front Immunol. 2018;9. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2018.01366
  4. 4. Shea KM, et al. Rates of Pneumococcal Disease in Adults With Chronic Medical Conditions.Open Forum Infect Dis. 2014 May 27;1(1):ofu024
  5. 5. Baskaran et al. Effect of tobacco smoking on the risk of developing community acquired pneumonia: A systematic review and meta-analysisPLOS ONE 2019 14(7): e0220204

What can I do?

  1. 1. CDC How to prevent pneumococcal factsheet, https://www.cdc.gov/pneumococcal/resources/prevent-pneumococcal-factsheet.pdf (Accessed 20th Aug 2021)
  2. 2. National Adult immunization schedule https://www.moh.gov.sg/news-highlights/details/moh-establishes-national-adult-immunisation-schedule-extends-use-of-medisave-for-vaccines-under-the-schedule (Accessed 20th Aug 2021)
  3. 3. MOH Vaccination and Childhood Developmental Screening Subsidies. https://www.moh.gov.sg/cost-financing/healthcare-schemes-subsidies/vaccination-and-childhood-developmental-screening-subsidies schedule (Accessed 20th Aug 2021)
  4. 4. MOH Nationally Recommended Vaccines. https://www.moh.gov.sg/resources-statistics/nationally-recommended-vaccines. (Accessed 20th Aug 2021)

Did you know?

  1. 1. Pelton.SI, et al. Decline in Pneumococcal Disease Attenuated in Older Adults and Those With Comorbidities Following Universal Childhood PCV13 Immunization. CID 2019;68(11):1831–8
  2. 2. Shea KM, et al. Rates of Pneumococcal Disease in Adults With Chronic Medical Conditions. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2014 May 27;1(1):ofu024
  3. 3. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Pneumonia. https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/pneumonia (Accessed 20th Aug 2021)
  4. 4. CDC Pink Book 13th edition 2015 Principal of Vaccination updated June2020, https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/pinkbook/prinvac.html (Accessed 20th Aug 2021)
  5. 5. Wyrwich .WK, et al. Observational longitudinal study of symptom burden and time for recovery from community-acquired pneumonia reported by older adults surveyed nationwide using the CAP Burden of Illness Questionnaire. Patient Related Outcome Measures 2015:6 215–223
  6. 6. American lung association-pneumococcal pneumonia. https://www.lung.org/blog/you-can-still-get-pneumonia-in-summer (Accessed 20th Aug 2021)
  7. 7. MOH Vaccination and Childhood Developmental Screening Subsidies. https://www.moh.gov.sg/cost-financing/healthcare-schemes-subsidies/vaccination-and-childhood-developmental-screening-subsidies schedule (Accessed 20th Aug 2021)
  8. 8. Jain.S, et al. Community-Acquired Pneumonia Requiring Hospitalization among U.S. Adults N Engl J Med 2015;373:415-27.
  9. 9. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Covid-19 and Lungs https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/coronavirus/lungs (Accessed 20th Aug 2021)